Part III considers the implications of this tradition for a modern interpretation of the Second Amendment. 167 Conscious that they directly held the reins of coercive power, the people would never accept that governors governed and citizens obeyed. On the one side are those who take bourgeois Europe as a model of civilized society. 312 But it has one major limitation: it would not give the people any direct control over general policy. 162 See infra Part III. On the other hand, should a threat arise from private groups, the militia was to bear the aspect of the state-self-sacrificing, participatory, hostile to private power.
117 See Cress, supra note 111, at 11, 36-39; Carp, supra note 113, at 21-22; Royster, supra note 67,. 503 (1986) (rejecting claim that Free Exercise Clause gave Orthodox Jewish officer the right to wear a yarmulke while on duty was inappropriate because of the military rule's effect on Goldman himself; in effect, it sought to deny him the status of an independent citizen. No course is without peril; in a republic, giving arms to the people is safer than giving arms to the government.
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As long as citizens are subject to economic tyranny by private (p.605)actors or governmental tyranny by public ones, they cannot be virtuous. See Kramnick, supra note 13, at 67-72. Caplan, Restoring the Balance: The Second Amendment Revisited, 5 Fordham Urb. 72 Maintaining that relationship, however, was never easy. 94, reprinted in The English Libertarian Heritage 222-23 (David. 111 See Fletcher, supra note 110, at 4, 15 ; Lawrence. To many, the new democratic legislatures seemed to be fora for pursuit of private interests, especially of the less affluent, rather than for discussion of the common good. Humans have public, political selves; they are capable of forming cooperative ventures that will benefit all. Lower courts have suggested that Miller limits the right even further. Service would bring together people from different classes, occupations, and ways of life into a common experience that could offer a basis for dialogue allowing self-revision through empathy with others. See Levinson, supra note 2, at 646-50. 238 During Congressional discussion of the Amendment, Elbridge Gerry proposed that it be revised to mandate a federal duty to assemble a militia, but his motion failed without a second and without discussion.
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Civic Republicanism and the Citizen Militia: The Terrifying